Diploma Syllabus

The structure of the overall diploma programme has been approved by the Supreme Council of Egyptian Universities.  The curriculum of the diploma is briefly described as follows:

  1. Solar Radiation
    • The Sun
    • Solar geometry
      • Earth – Sun movement
      • Longitude and altitude
      • Solar geometry angles
      • Time equation 
    • The nature of light
    • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    • Black body Radiation
    • Solar radiation
    • Solar radiation in space
    • Terrestrial solar radiation
    • Solar radiation in horizontal surface
    • Solar radiation in tilted angle
    • Measurement of solar radiation
  2. Solar Energy
    • Introduction
    • Basics
      • Semiconductor materials
      • Band gap
      • Conduction in semiconductors
        • Intrinsic, Doping, Extrinsic
        • Carrier concentration
    • Generation
    • Absorption of light
    • Recombination
    • Carrier transport
    • PN junctions
      • Formation
      • Diodes
      • Bias
    • Diode equations for PV
      • Basic equations
      • Depletion region
      • Current
    • Ideal Solar Cells
      • Solar cell structure
      • Light generated current
      • Collection
      • Quantum efficiency and spectral response
    • Solar cell parameters
      • IV Curve
      • Short-circuit current
      • Open circuit voltage
      • Fill Factor
      • Efficiency
      • Detailed balance
    • Resistive Effects
      • Characteristic resistance
      • Effect of parasitic resistances
      • Series resistance
      • Shunt resistance
      • Impact
    • Other effects
      • Temperature
      • Light Intensity
      • Ideality factor
  3. PV systems
    • PV cells, modules and arrays
      • Types of solar cells
      • Electrical characteristics of PV solar cells
      • Manufacturing of solar cells
      • Connection of solar cells in modules
        • Connection of solar modules in series
        • Connection of solar modules in parallel
      • Shading effect
      • Hot spots
      • Bypass
      • Temperature effect
      • Irradiance effect
      • Modules wiring
      • Aging of modules - degradation
    • Balance Of Systems
      • Charge controllers
      • Inverters
      • Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPT)
      • Lightening protection
      • Grounding
      • Junction box, string diodes and fuses
      • Data monitoring
      • Mounting systems
    • Autonomous PV systems
      • Basics of sizing autonomous systems
      • Solar batteries
      • Examples of autonomous systems applications
    • Grid connected PV systems
      • Basics of sizing grid connected systems
      • Characteristics of grid connected system
      • Net metering and feed-in-tariff
    • Hybrid systems
      • Types of hybrid systems
      • Examples of hybrid systems
      • Micro-grids and smart grids
    • Cost of PV energy production
      • Initial capital cost
      • Operation and Maintenance cost
      • Energy production cost
      • PV investment appraisal
    • Troubleshooting of PV systems
      • Categorization of faults
      • Detecting faults
    • Sustainability of PV systems (socioeconomic and Environmental analysis)
      • Environmental sustainability
      • Socioeconomic aspects of PV systems
  4. Solar Thermal Theory
    • Principles of Mass and Heat transfer
      •  Basics
      •  Conduction
      •  Diffusion
        • In Gases
        • In Liquids
        • In Solids
      •  Convection
      •  Condensation
      •  Evaporation
      •  Questions and Exercises
    • Energy balances and efficiency
      • Energy balances
        • Open systems
        • Closed systems
      •  Calculation of enthalpy changes
      •  Calculation of power plant efficiencies
      •  Questions and Exercises
    • Heat Exchangers
      •  Heat transfer in heat exchangers
      •  Tube bundle heat exchangers
      •  Plate heat exchangers
      •  Radiation heat exchangers
      •  Question and Exercises
    •  Thermal Storage systems
      • Thermal storage types
        • Thermal energy storage systems for sensible heat
        • Latent heat storage systems
        • Steam accumulator
        • Thermo-chemical energy storage
      •  Storage capacity
      •  Modular storage
    • Solar collectors: types, characteristics and structure
      •  Low-temperature collectors
        • Flat-plate collectors
        • Evacuated tube collectors
      •  Medium-temperature collectors
        • Parabolic trough collectors
        • Fresnel collectors
      •  High-temperature collectors
        • Dish collectors
        • Solar Towers
      •  Question and Exercises
  5. Solar Thermal Systems
    • Construction types of low-temperature Solar thermal collectors
      •  Flat plate collectors
        • Principles of flat plate collectors
        • Examples of flat plate collectors
      •  Evacuated tube collectors
        • Principles of evacuated tube collectors
        • Examples of evacuated tube collectors
          • Direct flow through tubes
          • Heat pipe evacuated tubes
      •  Questions and Exercises
    • Physical Operation of low temperature STCs
      •  Thermal efficiency of STCs
      •  Energy balances of STCs
      •  Convection and heat losses
      •  Questions and Exercises
    •  Storage Systems for low temperature STCs
      •  Buffer storage
      •  Combined Storage Tank
      •  Storage Tank with internal DHW preparation
      •  Insulation of storage tanks
      •  Questions and Exercises
    •  Application fields of STCs
      •  Swimming Pool Heating
      •  Domestic hot water
      •  Space heating
      •  Solar drying
      •  Distillation
      •  Drinking water preparation
      •  Questions and Exercises
    •  Practical Applications for STCs
      •  Small Scale Systems
        • Solar System for DHW for a 1 Family House
        • Façade Integration of Collectors
        • Roof scale installation
        • Flat-roof installation
      •  Big Scale Systems
        • Large scale systems with diurnal storage
      • Questions and Exercises
    • Solar Collector Market & Manufacturing
      •  Market development
      •  Question and Exercises
    •  CSP: Parabolic trough collectors, Fresnel reflectors
      •  Parabolic trough collectors
        • Introduction
        • Main Components
          • Reflectors
          • Receivers
          • Connections
          • Drive system, tracking system, pylons
        • Configuration of STE plants with PTCs
      •  Fresnel collectors
        • Main Components
          • Collector
          • Receiver
          • Tracking system
        • Advantages and disadvantages over PTC power plants
      •  Questions and Exercises
    • CSP: Solar power towers, Dish Sterling
      •  Solar PowerTowers
        • Principle of a solar tower power plant
        • Concepts
          • Absorber concepts
          • Heat transfer fluids
          • Heliostats
      •  Dish Sterling
        • Principles of Dish Sterling Plants
        • Concepts
          • Collector
          • Receiver
          • Heat engine      
        • Efficiency considerations
        • Experiences
        • Questions and Exercises
    •  Planning, layout, installation and operation
      •  Demand calculation
      •  System sizing and layout
        • Collector orientation
        • Collector properties
        • Collector area
        • Tank size
        • Solar fraction
        • Collector yield
      •  Cost calculation and economical aspects
      •  Conventional system components
        • Expansion tank
        • Piping + valves
        • Pump station
        • Sensors (temperature, flow)
        • Controller
      •  Installation
        • Collector mounting
        • Pipe connections
        • Collector fluid
        • Filling of collector loop
        • Leakage test
        • System pressures
      •  Operation
        • Cleaning
        • System monitoring
        • Operation check list
      •  Failure modes
        • Stagnation
        • Freezing
        • Sensor check
      •  Norms and Standards